The overhead barbell squat is an advanced exercise that requires strength in the legs, and stability of the shoulders and core. It mobilizes the thoracic spine, ankles, and hips, and improves the bottom of a squat, front squat, or snatch.
Muscles Worked – Overhead Squat
The overhead squat is a total-body exercise that not only challenges the lower body, but also the upper back, shoulders, and core. Below are the primary muscle groups targeted by the overhead squat.
The shoulders work hard in the overhead squat to keep the barbell overhead (with the assistance of the triceps) and stable throughout the entire movement. The shoulders work in an isometric fashion to stabilize the load overhead.
The quadriceps are the prime mover in the overhead squat. Due to the vertical torso positioning, the lifter must go into deeper knee flexion, requiring them to ascend with higher amounts of knee extension to remain in position (rather than allowing the hips to push back, shifting weight into the hamstrings).
The trapezius muscles (upper traps) provide stability and strength while the load is overhead. Without adequate trapezius engagement and barbell placement, the shoulders are stressed excessively.
The abdominals, (rectus abmonius, transverse abdominus and obliques) and lower back are all involved in stabilizing the lifter as they (1) support a load locked out overhead, (2) as they move throughout the full range of motion in the overhead squat, and (3) to remain braced and stable in the bottom of the overhead squat.
Start with the barbell placed overhead, with the grip set wide.
The grip is typically taken with a snatch grip, however this can vary based on the goal, athlete’s mobility, and strength. The key is that the barbell should be placed over the back of the neck, with the biceps in line with the ears. The wrists should be slightly extended, with the elbows straight and ribs pulled in (neutral spine).
2. Begin Descent
As you begin to descend, be sure not to extend the lumbar spine, but rather keep the core braced and the hips neutral (as opposed to anterior or posterior tilting of the pelvis). This squat should be patterned in the same manner a high bar back squat would.
3. Maintain Control and Position
Once you have reached full depth (which can be slightly different for everyone), the hip crease should be slightly below the knees, with the full foot down. The lifter should keep the core tight and be sure to actively push against the barbell to keep it into the correct positioning overhead (see step one).
From here, work to keep the barbell overhead and the chest up as you ascend out of the squat.
Be sure to keep the core tight and actively push up against the barbell to aid in standing up from the overhead squat.
Overhead Squat Variations
Below are three (3) overhead squat variations that can be used by coaches and athletes to keep training varied and progressive.
Pause Overhead Squat
The pause overhead squat is done similar to other pause squat variations, and can be a great way to increase control, core stability, and balance in the bottom of the squat. In addition, it will teach lifters to remain engaged with the core and upper back muscles when paused and challenge them to increase concentric strength getting out of the squat.
Tempo Overhead Squat
The tempo overhead squat is done similar to other tempo squat variations, and can be done at set cadences to increase time under tension, increase a lifter’s movement control and strength at certain positions, and address sticking points or technical breakdowns in the overhead squat movement.
Clean Grip Overhead Squat
The clean grip overhead squat is a overhead squat done with a clean grip (also can be done with a jerk grip) versus a wider grip, like the one taken in a snatch. The narrower the grip, the more overhead mobility is needed. In addition, narrowing the grip will increase upper back, shoulder, and trapezius involvement, making it a good variation for lifters looking to maximize upper back strength in the squat.
Check out these other resistance training exercises:
- Face Pull
- Bench Press
- The Turkish Get Up
- Front Squat.
- Shoulder Press – Standing Barbell
- Deadbug – Abdominal Exercise